\"What I was trying to explain to that patient is that she has lumbar lordosis, which is a fancy name for the curve of the lower spine that makes the buttocks protrude more,\" he said. \"In trying to explain that I said that she had ghetto booty and she didn't like that apparently. That was my attempt to explain why she had the back problem. It wasn't the whole problem but it was part of it and she got upset about it. You cannot cure lumbar lordosis.\"
He added that the term \"ghetto booty\" is not targeted toward a certain race or ethnicity, and he did not mean to offend anyone. Sweo admitted though that the term was \"probably inappropriate,\" and he would not be using it anymore.
When these immigrants moved into the safety of the United States, they transplanted the traditions of their own Yiddish culture into the Lower East Side ghetto. For many of these Jewish immigrants, especially Eastern European Jewish women, the United States offered liberation and the promise of a new life. That is, if only they could manage to assimilate into the new country.
Through a comparison of life in the Shtetl with life in the Lower East Side ghetto, one can see that married Jewish women had to completely redefine their role, whereas single women only had to make an adjustment to the lives they already knew. Single and married women faced different challenges and obstacles but experienced similar results; though single women were given more opportunities than married women, neither group of women could fully assimilate into American society. The nature of the ghetto, changing economic roles, limited educational opportunities, employment, and entertainment created many obstacles that prevented assimilation for the Eastern European Jewish immigrant women, resulting in an insular culture and an emulation of American life rather than assimilation into it.
In ghettos and concentration camps, German authorities deployed women in forced labor under conditions that often led to their deaths. German physicians and medical researchers used Jewish and Roma (Gypsy) women as subjects for sterilization experiments and other unethical human experimentation. In both camps and ghettos, women were particularly vulnerable to beatings and rape. Pregnant Jewish women often tried to conceal their pregnancies or were forced to submit to abortions. Females deported from Poland and the Soviet Union for forced labor in the Reich were often beaten or raped, or forced to submit to sexual relations for food or other necessities or basic comforts. Pregnancy sometimes resulted for Polish, Soviet, or Yugoslav forced laborers from sexual relations with German men. If so-called \"race experts\" determined that the child was not capable of \"Germanization,\" the women were generally forced to have abortions, sent to give birth in makeshift nurseries where conditions would guarantee the death of the infants, or simply shipped to the region they came from without food or medical care. The Germans established brothels in some concentration and labor camps, and the German army ran roughly 500 brothels for soldiers, in which women were forced to work.
Women played an important role in various resistance activities. This was especially the case for women who were involved in Socialist, Communist, or Zionist youth movements. In Poland, women served as couriers who brought information to the ghettos. Many women escaped to the forests of eastern Poland and the Soviet Union and served in armed partisan units. Women played an important role in the French (and French-Jewish) resistance. Sophie Scholl, a student at the University of Munich and a member of the White Rose resistance group, was arrested and executed in February 1943 for handing out anti-Nazi leaflets.
On 2 October 1940, Ludwig Fischer, Governor of the Warsaw District in the occupied General Government of Poland, signed the order to officially create a Jewish district (ghetto) in Warsaw. It was to become the largest ghetto in Nazi-occupied Europe.
All Jewish people in Warsaw had to relocate to the area of the ghetto by 15 November 1940. The ghetto was sealed on that date. In total 113,000 gentile Poles were forced to resettle to the 'Aryan side' and were replaced by 138,000 Jews from other districts of the capital.
The ghetto reached its highest number of inhabitants in April 1941. Within its wall lived 395,000 Varsovians (residents of Warsaw) of Jewish descent, 50,000 of people resettled from the western part of the Warsaw district, 3,000 from its eastern part as well as 4,000 Jews from Germany (all resettled in early months of 1941). Altogether there were around 460,000 inhabitants. 85,000 of them children up to the age of 14.
On 19 April 1943 the surviving remnants of the Jewish population of Warsaw rose to fight a final battle against the Nazis. The Nazi troops, led by SS-Gruppenführer Jürgen Stroop, systematically destroyed the Jewish district and eradicated any form of resistance. 56,065 of the remaining Jews of Warsaw were killed in combat, murdered or deported to death camps. By mid-May of 1943 the Warsaw ghetto ceased to exist.
A street seller of armbands and a group of pedestrians probably on 18 Zamenhofa Street in the ghetto. There are two advertising posters on the wall in the background - for a Senior Medic (starszy felczer), named J. Singer and for typewriting services.
These decisions may be organized in three ways: 1) measured decisions, thought about but eventually forcing choice; 2) role-playing decisions which fit the persona being played; and 3) spontaneous decisions, the \"single flash\" that Zuckerman described. Yet it was not only Jewish Polish women who had to make choices in the ghetto. The late Stephen Feinstein, of the University of Minnesota Holocaust and Genocide Center, urged me to include non-Jewish Polish women in this essay. Members of the Polish underground group AK (Armeia Krajowa) had a subgroup designed to aid Jews, Zegota.5 For its members, the era also meant a testing of conscience, opportunity, and resourcefulness.
By 1942, squads of German and Jewish policemen tried to fulfill deportation quotas of people to send from Warsaw to Treblinka, a death camp. Women and children became increasingly vulnerable to attack and the major question each morning became \"What is it like out today\"9 As Naran Zelichower put it, \"Danger could swoop down like a hawk.\" 10 So a woman had to chose her route carefully. A particularly sadistic German nicknamed \"Frankenstein\" controlled a narrow passage between parts of the ghetto. He delighted in killing people or wounding them to watch them bleed to death. Another consideration in planning a route was the likelihood of meeting beggars who might steal or stretch the limits of compassion. Uri Orlev remembered his mother refusing to go out into the street because \"she couldn't stand the sight of all those children begging for bread when she had none to give them.\"11 Sandra Brand found \"I was riddled with guilt,\" passing starving people because her family tradition was one of charity. 12 The family member sent for bread had to be the one strong enough to resist robbery or sympathy.
Once the food was securely home, mothers had to decide how the bread was divided. Some crusts, particularly in the early days of the ghetto, might be set aside to pay for a son's tutoring or for concerts or plays. As the starvation diet became more severe, mothers had to decide where to hide food and how to divide it. Many mothers were reported as diminishing their portion so their children could get more. Her healthful activity, however, was often the center of the family's survival, so the choice was hard. Perhaps one of the most poignant descriptions of an attempt to keep others alive is the small beggar girl who, given a small dried fish, broke it in two to give part to the sickly baby she held in her arms. 13 In the early days of the ghetto, there were less heartbreaking choices. Women were involved in soup kitchens for the poor, nursing school, theatricals, children's education, painting, and poetry. The building of a wall around the ghetto, the bringing in of non-Warsaw Jews, the decreased chances for smuggling, and a terrible typhus epidemic increased the vulnerability of a \"wrong\" decision.
Beside daily decisions, there were also long range measured ones. One major question was whether or not to try to escape from the ghetto. There were limited choices in early 1940. Poland, after its defeat by Germany, had been split between Germany and the Soviet Union. Many Jews left western Poland to go to the Soviet east where, in theory at least, Jews would not face discriminatory laws. One Warsaw woman, Wanda Wasileska, for example, escaped to the Soviets, became a Red Army colonel, and had the ear (some say the bed) of Stalin on Polish issues.14 Reports, however, came back of Soviet confiscation of property and the deportation of thousands of Jews who, by refusing Soviet citizenship, were sent to Siberia and Central Asia. Conditions were so unstable in the USSR zone of Poland that, when given a brief chance, 70,000 Jews signed up to go back to Warsaw. 15 Religious mothers, fearing Soviet \"godlessness,\" were often reluctant to take their daughters to Russia. Later, standing in a selection line for deportation, Stefania Staszewska's mother told her, \" Yes, Stefcia, you were right. All we needed was a backpack and some good shoes, and we could have saved ourselves back in 1939 and gone to Russia. But we stayed and took our chance in this terrible lottery.\" 16 So many Poles died in Soviet cattle cars carrying them to Siberia, however, that, as one Zionist leader put it, it was only a choice \"between a death sentence and life imprisonment.\"17
If the woman herself did not chose to leave the ghetto, what about sending a child of the family For Vladka Meed, a resistance courier, there was no sight more heartbreaking than the tears of mothers who entrusted their children to her to take them away. 23 Much went into such decisions. For some, religion was the primary consideration. Helena Szevszcusha was told by one woman \"I'd rather see him among the dead than see him betray his religion.\"24 Another woman held different views, \"I would rather have her become German than go to death at Treblinka.\" 25 If the child were given up, there were no absolute guarantees of well-being or of being raised as a Jew. The child, just to pass in a non-Jewish world, would need to learn Catholic prayers and proper church behavior. 59ce067264