Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010 (RA 10121) and IRR. Section 11 (b)(2) of the Act mandates the Local Disaster Risk and Reduction Management Council (LDRRMC) to ensure that DRR and CCA are integrated into local development plans, programs, and budgets as a strategy in sustainable development and poverty reduction. This provision integrates DRRM and CCA into physical and land-use planning, budget, infrastructure, education, health, environment, housing, and other sectors. The law requires LGUs to set aside 5% of their regular revenues for DRRM.
The Farmer Decision Support System (FDSS) is an ICT-enabled internet and SMS platform capable of advising individual farmers on how crops will respond given the climate forecast for the next cropping season. It is also a diagnostic tool that helps farmers to identify yield gaps and their sources. The model inputs are data from the climate seasonal forecast of the NOAH-WISE, five-day weather forecast from the Weather Data Solutions of IBM (IBM-WEDA), and actual daily weather from the weather stations of the Advanced Science and Technology Institute of the DOST (DOST-ASTI) (Trogo et al. 2015a, b). Based on inputs on weather, soil, and farmer practices, the platform simulates crop responses through the DSSAT crop model for corn (Balderama et al. 2017). The outputs of the model runs are crop calendar, biomass, and yields, which are sent by SMS or downloaded over the internet.
RA 10121 provides a strong legal and institutional basis for DRRM in the country and provided basis for the development of policies and plans, implementation of actions and measures pertaining to all aspects of DRRM, including good governance, risk assessment and early warning, knowledge building and awareness raising, reducing underlying risk factor, and preparedness for effective response and early recovery (Section 4, RA No. 10121).
The PDRRM Act transforms the National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) into the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) (Section 5, RA No. 10121). The National Council, being empowered with policy-making, coordination, integration, supervision, monitoring and evaluation functions, oversees the Philippine disaster management system composed of large numbers of diverse interacting agencies. Table 1 showcases the various DRRM national institutions in the country as enunciated in RA 10121.
RA 10121 recognized the need to institutionalize DRRM both at the national and local levels. It calls for the need to develop a National Disaster Reduction and Management Framework (NDRRMF) that provides for a comprehensive, all hazards, multi-sectoral, inter-agency and community-based approach to DRRM. It is envisage that NDRRFM serve as principal guide to DRRM efforts to the country and provide a framework to achieve a safer, adaptive and disaster resilient Filipino communities (NDRRMP, 2011-2018). In order to ensure relevance, NDRRFM shall be reviewed on a five-year interval, or as may be deemed necessary (Section 6, RA No. 10121).
Section 21 of RA 10121 provides that the LDRRMF amounting to not less than five percent (5%) of the estimated revenue from regular sources shall be set aside to support disaster risk management activities such as, but not limited to the pre-disaster preparedness programs including training, purchase of disaster response and rescue equipment, supplies and medicines, for post-disaster activities, and payment of premiums on calamity insurance.
Disasters contribute to a vicious cycle of poverty, preventing individuals, families and communities from exercising their rights and realizing their development potential. Given that typhoons, floods, landslides, drought, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis and the like will continue to hit the country, the government and the general public have to establish and strengthen mechanisms to increase their abilities to prevent, adapt, mitigate and prepare for potential impacts of disasters and risks. Climate change will bring about more, recurrent and destructive calamities, hence, RA 10121 is a timely and relevant policy that would prepare the country for effects and impacts of climate change. It has taken disaster risk reduction and management at the forefront of national and local development plans and policies. 2b1af7f3a8